1. Urban agglomerations: what kind of definition?
In Dysturb database, the localities of census are also gathered by urban area insofar as the double practice of the intra urban buffer zone and of the projection of displaced urban areas beyond the borders of the Bantustans (fig. 4) creates a morphological discontinuity. It makes a specific South African type of both functional and morphological urban areas including large planned buffer zones between core agglomeration, and projected urban fragments. This South African type of urban agglomeration is allowed for the international comparisons based on morphological definition of urban areas (Moriconi-Ebrard, 1993 & 1994; StatSA 2001; Bretagnolle, Pumain & Vacchiani-Marcuzzo, 2009). The authors of Dysturb have used a first association of the cities and their dependant townships carried out by François-Moriconi in the year 1990, supplemented by the work of the HRC, The Two South Africas (1992), and a systematic work (Vacchiani-Marcuzzo, 2005). This last work also took into account the urban displaced areas of the bantustans distant from several tens of kilometers. One can give as an example the town of Bloemfontein, which forms a continuous urban area with its township Mangaung but which in the South-African context must be associated with Botshabelo, a settlement project at several tens of kilometers within the policy framework of the forced removals to form what was initially to be an enclave of Bantustan. The municipality is today called Mangaung and includes parts of the agglomeration.